Sterling Silver Rings

Sterling Silver Rings – Tips on Choosing the Perfect Silver Ring for Men and Women Both

Sterling silver rings are an inexpensive way to expand your jewelry connection. There are many designs available for men and women both. Whether you want something simple and affordable or something really flashy and extravagant, you can find the perfect silver ring.

There are a variety of rings to choose from: engagement rings, cocktail rings, fashion rings, wedding ring sets, etc. The prices vary from $20 to several thousand dollars. Sometimes the silver is part of a double band with white gold or platinum.

Here are some tips for choosing sterling silver rings:

• You obviously need to choose a ring that fits your finger. If you’re buying it as a gift for somebody else, make sure you have an idea of his or her finger size.

• Are you looking for a contemporary ring, vintage ring, antique ring, or a timeless ring? Sterling silver has been used in the creation of rings for a long, long time. Some people prefer classic or vintage styles while others prefer modern, sleek designs.

• Finger length and size play a role in the type of cut you should choose. If you want to go with a gemstone ring, you will have to choose a cut. For long fingers, round cuts are ideal. Elongated cuts will make the finger appear TOO long. For short fingers, marquise shaped and teardrop shaped stones are ideal. Heart shaped and round cuts tend to flatter narrow fingers. Wide fingers look best with a silver ring featuring a wide marquise shaped stone is ideal. Make sure that the stone is wider than the finger. Another choice is a silver ring with a cluster of stones.

• If you’re buying for a man, go with chunky gemstones in onyx or jade. If you’re buying for a woman, choose sterling silver rings with delicate features such as thin bands and heart shaped, princess cut, or oval cut stones.

• There’s no rule that says you have to buy sterling silver rings with gemstones. Some rings feature designs such as crosses or a four leaf clover. Some have engravings such as initials, graduation dates, names, and so forth.

Taking Care of Your Sterling Silver Rings

Now that you know how to choose sterling silver rings, you need to learn how to take care of them! You can clean the silver by mixing a tablespoon of baking soda with a bit of water. The thicker the paste, the better. Slowly rub the mixture on the metal and then rinse it off with lukewarm water. Take a clean, lint-free cloth and polish the ring dry.

You could also use plain white toothpaste to scrub tarnish off of the silver. Just use a THIN layer of toothpaste and rub it in with a few drops of water. You can use a toothbrush with soft bristles to remove tarnish from tiny crevices.

Sterling silver rings come in many sizes, styles, and designs. No matter what you’re looking for, you can find the perfect ring at While you’re at it, order some silver necklaces, earrings, and bracelets. You will receive a huge discount!

Silver Hoop Earrings

Silver Hoop Earrings Shopping Guide – 6 Tips for Choosing the Right Pair of Hoop Earrings

Silver hoop earrings go well with any type of outfit! You don’t have to wait until you’re wearing an evening dress or formal gown to put in a pair of hoop earrings. After all, hoops aren’t always large. Some hoops are quite small. These earrings are available in a variety of sizes. Sometimes the sterling silver is quite plain. Some of the hoops feature crystal or gemstone accents.

There are a number of things to consider: your own tastes, the size of the hoops, the size of your ears, whether you want plain hoops or hoops accented with diamonds or crystals, etc. One of the most important considerations is comfort. If you have small, delicate ears, you probably shouldn’t wear large, heavy earrings. Keep them small and light. If they are too heavy for your ears, you will feel really weighed down.

Here are a few tips for choosing the right silver hoop earrings:

1. Think about your lifestyle. Do you want something casual? Then go with petite earrings with minimal embellishments. Do you want something fancier? You can go with larger loops with diamond accents. If you spend a lot of time outdoors, go with some huggie-style earrings.

2. When determining the size of the earrings, keep in mind that medium hoops are between 1 inch and 1.5 inch in diameter. These are the most versatile since they aren’t too large or too small.

3. Consult your own wardrobe for some ideas on which hoops to go with! If you have a lot of designer clothing, you’ll need at least one pair of large hoops, at least 1.5 inch in diameter. If you have a lot of suits in neutral shades, your best bet is a pair of petite hoops. For a lot of casual clothes, you can stick with medium hoops.

4. Decide whether or not you want the earrings to be embellished with crystals or diamonds. Some designs also feature “twisted” shapes. And then there are earrings that feature a symbol inside of the hoops. This symbol can be a dolphin, cross, rose, or even a name!

5. Why settle with just one pair? Why not diversify your wardrobe by buying a few different earrings. Try to get at least one pair that will be noticeable at a special event. There should be a few different pairs for everyday wear.

6. Last but not least, you need to consider your budget. The great thing about sterling silver is that it is an inexpensive metal. You can find a good pair of silver hoop earrings for less than $100. Of course, if you want diamond or crystal embellishments, you should expect to pay more.


Now that you know what to look for in silver hoop earrings, you can order them at! You will find huge discounts on any silver jewelry you want. Super Jeweler is the leading internet jewelry store. They offer huge deals on all of their jewelry AND on shipping and handling!

Diamond Stud Earrings

Diamond Stud Earrings Guide – Tips for Choosing That Perfect Pair

Every woman should have at least one pair of diamond stud earrings. They make both a simple and elegant fashion statement. They look great with any type of outfit. Whether you want to buy a pair for yourself or as a gift for somebody else, you will find that there are a variety of styles and sizes to choose from.

Keep in mind that no two diamonds are exactly alike. When it comes to stud earrings, you need to make sure you choose the right pair. Even if you can’t afford an expensive pair, you still don’t want to waste your money on a tacky pair.

Whether you want three-prongs or six-prongs, here are a few tips for choosing the perfect pair of diamond stud earrings:

• Decide on the cut, as it’s one of the most important aspects of a diamond. An ideal cut gives a diamond its brilliance and scintillation. If cut properly, the facets allow the maximum amount of light to enter through the top. When the angles are correct, the light that enters through the top will be dispersed. Earrings are available in cuts such as brilliant rounds, emerald cut, princess cut, and oval cut styles.

• Another aspect to consider is the clarity. It’s essential that you buy diamonds with the fewest amount of flaws possible. If the inclusions are noticeable to the naked eye, the stones aren’t nearly as beautiful as they should be.

• Next, think about the color. Diamonds are available in every color imaginable, ranging from clear to pink. Most people consider completely colorless diamonds to be the most luxurious, although red, blue, and pink diamonds are becoming more and more popular.

• What kind of setting would you prefer the stones to be placed in? Yellow gold? White gold? Silver? How many prongs? When it comes to stud earrings, you might want to avoid crown style settings, as they are a poor fit. The best fits are 3-prongs and 4-prongs.

• Lastly, consider the carat. The carat is the unit of weight by which a stone is measured. Where stud earrings are concerned, you don’t want to go with heavy diamonds since they might feel uncomfortable. They are generally available in 1 carat sizes, ¼ carat, ¾ carat, and 1/3 carat.

Final Remarks

Now that you know what to look for in diamond stud earrings, you can begin shopping for that perfect pair. The price can range from just over $100 to five figures, depending on the four Cs and the setting. Go with the highest quality you can afford.

The best place to shop for diamond stud earrings is You will find great deals on diamond earrings as well as necklaces, rings, bracelets, and more. SuperJeweler is a leader in the jewelry industry, and always offers quality pieces.

Diamond Hoop Earrings

Diamond Hoop Earrings – 6 Helpful Tips for Finding the Right Pair

When a woman enters a room wearing diamond hoop earrings, you can be sure that everybody will take notice. Dangle earrings made with diamonds are exquisite – especially when they’re placed in the right setting. The settings and size of the hoops vary a great deal. Selecting the perfect pair isn’t as easy as you might think. If you’re buying them as a gift for somebody else, you need to know their personal taste in order to pick out the right pair.

Here are some tips for helping you pick out the right pair:

1. One of the most important considerations is size. Do you want large and thin hoops, or wide huggie-style earrings? If you’re buying for someone else, think about the size of their ears. People with smaller ears generally prefer smaller hoops. Also, how many hoops do you want to go with? Some earrings have two or three rows of hoops.

2. Next, consider the metal in which you want the diamonds placed. Do you want the earrings to be yellow gold? White gold? Platinum? Silver? Yellow gold offers amazing contrast, although silver diamond hoop earrings are classier and more beautiful on a subtle level.

3. When it comes to the setting, how many diamonds do you want? One diamond at the end of a hoop, or a series of diamonds placed all around a hoop? What about the size? It’s common sense: the more diamonds a pair of earrings has, the smaller they tend to be. An exception is a pair with small stones surrounding the hoop and a large diamond dangling from the bottom.

4. Another thing to consider is whether or not you want diamonds to be the only stone on the earrings, or if you want other gems complementing it. Hoops with alternating diamonds and rubies or sapphires are always a popular choice. Many women also love hoops with alternative white and pink diamonds.

5. What kind of cut would you prefer the diamonds to be? Both round and baguette diamonds are popular choices. Round brilliants give off the most dazzle and sparkle, although the cool, classic cut of baguette and emerald style diamonds appeal to some people as well.

6. When shopping for the perfect pair, you need to decide on the carat of the diamonds. As mentioned above, they are available in a variety of sizes. Common carat sizes for hoop and huggie-style earrings include ½, 1/3, ¾, and 1/5.

Go Ahead and Look for Diamond Hoop Earrings

You should now have an idea of what to look for when shopping for diamond hoop earrings. Whether you want to buy a pair for yourself or as a gift for someone else, you need to make sure you choose the right size, cut, setting, and style.

You can find plenty of gorgeous diamond hoop earrings to choose from at You will find everything from black diamond hoops to sparkly flipback diamond earrings. SuperJeweler is notorious for giving out amazing discounts on their products, including diamond hoops.

Diamond Bridal Set

Diamond Bridal Set – What Type of Setting, Cut, Size, & Style Will Suit Both You & Your Sweetheart?

You and your partner can prove that you complement each other by wearing the perfect diamond bridal set. You have the choice of choosing individual rings or going with a full set. These days, both the bride and groom are opting for diamonds.

When choosing the bridal set, you need to decide which settings and cuts are ideal for you and your significant other. Don’t assume that just because round brilliants and princess cuts are popular that they are right for you. There are plenty of other cuts and styles from which you can choose.

Diamond styles include:

• Princess
• Round
• Pear
• Round Brilliant
• Marquise
• Emerald
• Heart
• Trillion
• Baguette

You also need to consider the color. Since your wedding is the most important day of your life, you need to go with the highest quality diamonds you possibly can. The less color a stone has, the more light is able to reflect through the stone to make it dazzle. This means that a colorless diamond bridal set is your best bet.

Clarity is another important factor to consider. Natural flaws are referred to as inclusions. These are minerals that get trapped inside the gemstone as it forms. The clarity of a diamond depends on the characteristics of the minerals inside of it. The fewer the flaws, the more light the stone gives off. For a bridal set, go with diamonds that are rated either IF (internally flawless), VVS1 or VVS2 (very very slight inclusions) on the grade scale.

Choosing a Style for Your Diamond Bridal Set

Would you and your significant other prefer a contemporary style or an antique style? You can order brand new rings with an old-fashioned design. The emerald and marquise cuts, for instance, are considered to be true classics. While they don’t sparkle as brilliantly as modern cuts, they still give off a cool dazzle, and look great when set in a white gold or silver band.

Another thing to consider is the number of diamonds. Although nothing says romantic like “solitaire”, for some couples, the more diamonds, the better. One popular style these days is the five-diamonds set in yellow gold. Another popular choice is the large center stone accented by smaller stones.

Whatever you and your fiancé decide to go with, you need to make sure that the diamond bridal set suits you each as individuals AND as a couple. If you plan to shop online, make sure you order from a legitimate website that has a long, successful history of selling authentic jewelry.

One site you really must check out is This online store has the best selection of jewelry. You will find the perfect diamond bridal set at a discount price. You can also find earrings, bracelets, pendants, and more.

Ruby Engagement Ring

Ruby Engagement Ring Tips: Learn All About Rubies & How They’re Used in Engagement Rings

Rubies are one of the four precious stones, which also include diamonds, sapphires, and emeralds. Since they are so bright and stunning, they make ideal engagement rings. If you’re shopping for a ruby engagement ring, you’ll find that there are a number of styles and designs to choose from.

One of the biggest factors regarding price is the color. The most valuable rubies are often referred to as “pigeon blood-red”. Secondary hues include purple, pink, and orange. Purple is the preferred secondary hue because it makes the red appear riches. All natural rubies have flaws, which include inclusions of rutile needles and color impurities.

The best cuts offer a depth and width ratio higher than comparable cuts of diamonds. Good quality rubies have a depth percentage of 65%-80%. Rubies that are too shallow will look large for their weight and appear lighter in color than deeper-cut rubies.

When choosing the ruby engagement ring setting, popular choices include solitaire, three-stone, and side-stone. The three-stone setting features either a ruby as the center-stone, with a diamond and sapphire on either side. The side-stone setting features a diamond as the center-stone with two rubies on either side.

The solitaire ring is timeless. It’s the best setting for capturing the red tones of a ruby. For some women, there’s nothing more beautiful than a solitaire ruby. Others like to see the ruby embellished by sparkling diamonds.

As for the cuts, the most popular for women’s rings include emerald, heart, and oval. For men’s rings, popular cuts include asscher, bezel, and round. An ideal ruby engagement ring for a man would be a ruby in a bezel setting with pave set diamonds.

More Considerations for Ruby Engagement Rings

Another key part of selecting an engagement ring is the band. Which band would fit your fiancé’s finger the best? Men’s rings have wider bands. Ruby looks gorgeous with all metal types: platinum, white gold, yellow gold, and silver.

Yellow gold is the traditional metal for ruby rings, since gold tends to compliment red. Simple solitaire gemstones look best in gold settings; although a diamond rim surrounding the center ruby looks gorgeous as well.

While yellow gold brings out the deep red in a ruby, the gem’s combination with diamonds in silver, platinum, or white gold makes it look sleek and contemporary.

Looking for an intricate design? You might find ruby claddagh rings to be a lovely choice. Claddagh designs are usually shaped as a heart, with the ruby in the middle. Sometimes the ruby is part of a three-stone setting along with a diamond and an emerald.

Now you have an idea of what to look for in a ruby engagement ring! Whether you’re shopping for men’s rings or women’s rings, you’ll find that these red gemstones are unparalleled in their beauty.

Get your ruby engagement ring at You can find great deals on ruby engagement rings at 2 carats on up. Be sure to check out ruby necklaces, bracelets, and earrings as well!

Pearl Bridal Jewelry

Pearl Bridal Jewelry: 7 Tips for Choosing the Perfect Necklace, Bracelet, & Earrings

When it comes to her big day, a girl almost always prefers pearl bridal jewelry over anything else. Pearls look lovely with any wedding dress. Brides have been wearing pearls for centuries. They’re available in a variety of styles and colors. Not all of them are white – some are pastel in color.

Since there are so many styles, how can you choose the right jewelry for you? The most important thing to consider is your dress. If you’re going to wear a vintage dress, then wear a vintage pearl necklace. If you’re going to wear a modern dress, select a necklace with pearls and gemstones, such as your birthstone or diamonds.

Here are some more tips on choosing the right pearl bridal jewelry:

1. One thing you need to consider is the shape. Not all pearls are round. Large round pearls are actually rare. There are oval pearls, button pearls, and Keishi pearls. Keishis occur when the mollusks reject the injected nucleus and grow a natural pearl. In other words, they are “accidents”, and have unique shapes.

2. As mentioned above, they’re available in a number of colors. Not all pearls are white. Some turn out to be gray, pastel blue, green, and even black. Jet black pearls are very rare. Naturally occurring black pearls come from pearl farms in the French Polynesia, the Philippines, and Indonesia.

3. Which style do you want? Do you want a beaded pearl necklace? A single strand? Double strand? Do you want a single pearl surrounded by rhinestones or diamonds? Once again, you’ll want to choose something that matches your dress and the rest of your accessories.

4. A popular trend is to keep things simple. The bride can wear a freshwater pearl set that includes a simple necklace, matching bracelet, and earrings. The necklace just has one or a few pearls on a strand.

5. Can’t afford fancy pearls? Don’t worry – they vary in price a great deal. An affordable, yet lovely choice is a pearl solitaire on a strand of clear nylon. This creates a “floating” look. You should also consider the length. Do you want a choker or would you prefer a long pearl necklace?

6. Bracelets are available as single- or multi-strand. One popular style is a single strand of alternating pearls and Swarovski crystals. The pearls and Swarovski crystals are available in all different colors.

7. For the earrings, you can stick with basic pearl studs or go with something fancier. The great thing about stud earrings is that they are versatile. Other styles include pearl hoops, leverbacks, dangles, etc. Some feature pearls alone and others have diamond accents.

Final Words About Pearl Bridal Jewelry

Hopefully, these tips will help you choose the right pearl bridal jewelry set! The wonderful thing about pearls is that they always look classy, regardless of size and style. offers pearl bridal jewelry discounts. You can find beautiful pearls, diamonds, crystals, and gemstones in all colors and varieties. The jewelry superstore offers awesome customer service and free shipping!

Pearl Beaded Necklace

Pearl Beaded Necklace Guide: How to Choose the Right Pearls & Necklace Style

Many people don’t realize it, but pearls are just as versatile as gemstones and diamonds. When buying a pearl beaded necklace, there are so many things to consider: the color of the pearls, the shape, quality, etc. Most of the necklaces you come across are cultured, or harvested. Natural pearls are very rare.

Harvested pearls are just as lovely as naturally occurring ones. However, some harvest pearls are worth more than others. Akoya is considered to be the most lustrous type. These are known for their warm color. South sea pearls have a silver appearance. Burmese pearls are very warm in color tone.

Freshwater pearls are cultivated in mollusks. They are found in freshwater rivers and lakes. They are quite translucent and have elongated shapes.

When you shop for a pearl beaded necklace, you’ll see that they are available in different colors: pure white, cream, pink, silver, yellow, and black. Some of these colors occur naturally while others are treated in labs.

One thing that really affects the price of a necklace is the smoothness. During the layering process inside of the oyster, the nacre might not be of good quality. Sometimes tiny flaws appear in pearls affecting the overall smoothness.

The nacre varies in thickness as well. This thickness dictates the size of the pearl. For most consumers, a freshwater pearl beaded necklace is ideal because they are large. Akoya pearls range from 6.0 – 8.5mm, and Tahitian and South Sea pearls are almost twice that.

Here is an overview of the styles of pearl beaded necklaces:

• Choker: 14” – 15” in length
• Sautoir (rope): Extra-length necklace, usually more than 36” in length
• Princess: Approximately 18” in length
• Opera: 30 – 36” in length, falls to the breastbone
• Matinee: Falls to the top of the cleavage

What style of necklace do you want? How many strands?

Pearl Beaded Necklace Styles

A uniform necklace is made with numerous pearls of the same size and shape, although there can be a slight size difference between the end and center pearls for a proportionate look.

A graduated necklace is composed of pearls which taper downward in size from the center to the ends.

There are also multi-strand beaded necklaces. These go well with simple outfits. When you wear so many beads around your neck, they should be the highlight of your outfit. You don’t want to overdo the look by wearing something more than a simple dress.

Once you choose the perfect pearl beaded necklace, here are a few tips on how to take care of it:

• Treat the pearls just as you would any precious jewels.
• Don’t clean them with abrasives or chemicals.
• Don’t expose them to hairspray, perfume, or cosmetics.
• Whenever you take the necklace off, gently wipe it with mild soap and warm water.
• When not wearing it, wrap it in a tissue when putting it in your jewelry box.

Now you have an understanding of pearl necklaces. Just use this guide as a starting point and you should be able to find the necklace of your dreams!

So, where can you find your dream pearl beaded necklace? The best place to look is at You’ll find huge discounts on pearls, diamonds, rubies, and more. Save hundreds of dollars on everything from pearl necklaces to diamond earrings!

Emerald Jewelry

Emerald Jewelry Guide: Tips for Choosing Emerald Necklaces, Rings, & Earrings

Emerald jewelry is some of the most popular jewelry in the world! The birthstone of May, emeralds symbolize spring. For thousands of years, cultures around the world have coveted these dazzling green gemstones. It was Cleopatra’s favorite gem. The stunning stone varies from a grassy green to deep velvet green.

Not only is it a great choice of a birthday gift, it’s also a good choice for an engagement ring, wedding ring, and a Mother’s Day gift. It’s also the traditional gift of choice for couples celebrating their 20th and 35th anniversaries.

Emeralds with a yellowish hue are considered to be poor quality. The greener, the better. The gemstone is divided into three components: tone, saturation, and color. The secondary hues are red, yellow, and blue. As mentioned above, yellowish-green stones aren’t worth as much. In fact, scientists categorize it as green beryl rather than emerald.

While 10X magnification is used to grade the clarity of a diamond, an emerald isn’t subjected to as much testing. If no visible inclusions can be seen by the eye, an emerald is considered flawless. A post lapidary oiling process is used to improve the clarity of this gemstone. Due to their crystal non-uniformity, they are usually cut into cabochons instead of the faceted shapes common with other gemstones.

Emerald jewelry is available in all shapes, sizes, styles, and settings. In some settings, it’s combined with other stones such as diamonds, sapphires, and rubies. One of the most popular cuts is, of course, the traditional emerald cut, which makes the stone look like a sleek, green ice rink.

Metal Choices for Emerald Jewelry

As for metal, there is nothing more stunning than a deep green gemstone placed in a yellow gold setting. The two colors really look gorgeous together. Still, a lot of people prefer platinum, white gold, or silver. It all depends on your personal style. If you want to look flashy, stick with yellow gold. If you want to look cool and icy, stick with a white or silver metal.

Emerald rings are available for women and men both. Men’s rings usually feature multiple stones set in either palladium or white gold. A typical feature in women’s rings are one, huge stone with an emerald, brilliant round, or oval cut, surrounded by tiny diamonds.

Necklaces feature emeralds in a variety of designs, ranging from a solitaire gemstone on a chain to an intricate design featuring multiple stones. Prices vary from $50 – $5,000. Emeralds are available as fine jewelry and fashion jewelry.

No emerald jewelry set is complete without earrings. From studs to hoops, chandeliers to drops, there is a dazzling array of earrings for every style and budget. These days, the most popular earrings feature emeralds and diamonds both.

Check out emerald jewelry at! You can find emerald bracelets, necklaces, rings, and earrings. You’ll be surprised at how much money you can save at There are some amazing emerald jewelry discounts on everything from heart shaped pendants to stud earrings.

Blue Topaz Necklace

Blue Topaz Necklace: Learn About All of the Popular Styles & Settings

A blue topaz necklace is one of the most beautiful pieces of jewelry! This gemstone will remind anyone who looks upon it of a clear blue sky on a warm day. It’s an ideal gift for anybody born in the month of December.

Not only is it lovely, blue topaz is also a hard stone. As long as it’s well taken care of, it can maintain its dazzle for decades. Since blue topaz rarely occurs naturally, most of the stones are treated. Some sellers try to sell citrine as blue topaz. There is a simple method of distinguishing the two. A real topaz stone will sink to the bottom of a methyl iodine solution, while citrine will float.

If you want to buy a natural stone, be sure to ask for a Certificate of Authenticity. However, a blue topaz necklace made out of a natural stone is very rare and expensive.
The gemstone varies in colors. The more desirable is a pure robin’s egg blue. On some necklaces it’s combined with sapphires, diamonds, or both. Many women find these combinations to be ideal, although some still prefer a solitaire blue topaz stone.

This stone can be cut in all of the common styles as well as unusual ones. You’ll find necklaces featuring emerald cut topazes, heart cuts, round cuts, oval cuts, etc. Since it’s a “cool” color, it’s typically paired with a white or silver metal, such as sterling silver or platinum. This doesn’t mean that it doesn’t look great with yellow gold. In fact, the “iciness” of the blue topaz and the brightness of yellow gold create very flashy jewelry.

More Styles of a Blue Topaz Necklace

Another amazing piece of jewelry is a blue topaz necklace decorated with glittering gold and accented by tiny diamonds. The great thing about this gemstone is that it goes well with any metal and setting.

Some necklaces feature shapes such as crosses, stars, and hearts, and have the gemstone or multiple gemstones in the center. A cross, for example, will be made of multiple topazes. One particularly popular design features a dolphin holding a blue topaz sphere! On some necklaces, the sphere connects two dolphins together.

Do you prefer butterflies? How about a pendant featuring a butterfly with blue topaz and amethyst wings. If you’re buying for your sweetheart, then a heart-shaped necklace might be a good idea – especially if the topaz is embellished with diamond accents!

Even though it’s a hard stone, it can still get scratches. It also requires regular cleaning in order to prevent a buildup of dust. The best way to clean a blue topaz necklace is by gently brushing it with a small toothbrush. You can use warm water or a solution that’s free of ammonia.

You can find the perfect blue topaz necklace at! There are dozens of pretty necklaces, as well as earrings, rings, and bracelets. You can find huge discounts, including free shipping and handling.